Virtual Reality and PTSD

Difede, J., Cukor J., Jaysinghe, N., Patt, I., Jedel, S., Giosan, G., Spielman, L., & Hoffman, H,. (2007). Virtual Reality Treatment for PTSD following September 11, 2001. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 1639-1647.

Difede, J., Malta, L., Best, S., Henn-Haase, C., Metzler, T., & Marmar, C. (2007). A Randomized Controlled Clinical Treatment Trial for WTC-Related PTSD in Disaster Workers , Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195, 861-865.

Difede, J., Roberts, J., Jayasinghe, N., & Leck, P. (2006). Evaluation and treatment of emergency services personnel following the World Trade Center attack. In Y. Neria, R. Gross, R. Marshall, & E. Susser (Eds.), September 11, 2001: Treatment, Research and Public Mental Health in the Wake of a Terrorist Attack. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Foa, E. B., Hembree E. & Rothbaum, B. O. (2007). Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD: Emotional Processing of Traumatic Experiences, Therapist Guide. New York. Oxford University Press.

Gerardi, M., Rothbaum, B.O., Ressler, K., Heekin, M., & Rizzo, A. (2008).Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy Using a Virtual Iraq: Case Report. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21, 209-213.

Hodges, L.F., Rothbaum, B.O., Alarcon, R., Ready, D., Shahar, F., Graap, K., Pair, J., Hebert, P., Gotz, D., Wills, B., Baltzell, D. (1998). Virtual Vietnam: A Virtual Environment for the treatment of Vietnam War Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Paper presented at the International Conference on Artificial Reality and tele-existence. University of Tokyo, Tokyo Japan December 21-23, 1998.

McLay, R.N., Graap, K., Spira, J., Perlman, K., Johnston, S., Rothbaum, B.O., Difede, J., Deal, W., Oliver, D., Baird, A., Bordnick, P.S., Spitalnick, J., Pyne, J.M., & Rizzo, A. (2012). Development and testing of virtual reality exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in active duty service members who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. Military Medicine, 177, 635-642.

Olasov Rothbaum, B., Price, M., Jovanovic, T., Norrholm, S. D., Gerardi, M., Dunlop, B., & ... Ressler, K. J. (2014). A Randomized, Double-Blind Evaluation of D-Cycloserine or Alprazolam Combined With Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans. American Journal Of Psychiatry, 171(6), 640-648.

Ready, D. J., Gerardi, R. J., Backscheider, A. G., Mascaro, N., & Rothbaum, B. (2010). Comparing Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy to Present-Centered Therapy with 11 U.S. Vietnam Veterans with PTSD. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 13(1), 49-54.

Reger, G.M., Gahm, G., Rizzo, A.A., Swanson, R., & Duma, S. (2008). Soldier Evaluation of the Virtual Iraq. Telemedicine and e-HEALTH, 15, 101-104.

Rizzo, A. Graap, K. & Rothbaum, B.O. (2007). Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for war veterans. In C. R. Figley & W. P. Nash (Eds.) Combat and Operational Stress Management: Theory, Research, and Practice. New York: Routledge.

Rizzo, A., Difede, J., Rothbaum, B.O., Reger, G., Spitalnick, J.S., Cukor, J., & Mclay, R. (2010). Development and early evaluation of the Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan exposure therapy system for combat-related PTSD. Annals of the NY Academy of Science, 1208, 114-125.

Rizzo, A., Pair, J., Graap, K., Manson, B., McNerney, P.J., Wiederhold, B.K, Wiederhold, M.D., Spira, J. (2006). A virtual reality exposure therapy application for Iraq war military personnel with posttraumatic stress disorder: From training to toy to treatment. In M.J. Roy (Ed.), Novel Approaches to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 235-250.

Rizzo, A.A. Graap, K,, Perlman, K., Mclay, R.N., Rothbaum, B.O., Reger, G., Parsons, T.D., Difede, J., & Pair, J. (2008). Virtual Iraq: Initial Results from a VRET Application for Combat-Related PTSD. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 132, 420-425.

Rizzo, A.A., Graap, K., Perlman, K., Mclay, R.N., Rothbaum, B.O., Reger, G., Parsons, T., Difede, J., & Pair, J. (in press). Virtual Iraq: Initial Results from a VR Exposure Therapy Application for OIF/OEF Combat-Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. In J.D. Westwood et al. (Eds.), Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. Amsterdam, NL: IOS Press.

Rothbaum, B., Foa, E., & Hembree, E. (2007). Reclaiming Your Life from a Traumatic Experience: Client Workbook. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rothbaum, B., Hodges, L., Alarcon, R., Ready, D., Shahar, F., Graap, K., Pair, J., Hebert, P., Gotz, D., Wills, B., & Baltzell, D. (1999). Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for PTSD Vietnam Veterans: A Case Study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12(2), 263-272.

Rothbaum, B., Hodges, L., Ready, D., Graap, K., & Alarcon, R. (2001). Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Vietnam Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62, 617-622.

Spira, J., Pyne, J., Wiederhold, B., Wiederhold, M., Graap, K., Rizzo, A. (2006). “Virtual Reality and Other Experiential Therapies for Combat-related PTSD.” Primary Psychiatry, 13(3), 58-64.

Virtual Reality and Fear of Flying

Anderson, P., Jacobs, C.H., Lindner, G.K., Edwards, S., Zimand, E., Hodges, L., Rothbaum, B.O. (2006). Cognitive behavior therapy for fear of flying: sustainability of treatment gains after September 11. Behavior Therapy, 37(1), 91-97.


da Costa, R., Sardinha, A., Nardi, A. (2008). Virtual reality exposure in the treatment of fear of flying. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 79(9), 899-903.

Hirsch, J. A. (2012). Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy and Hypnosis for Flying Phobia in a Treatment-Resistant Patient: A Case Report. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 55, 168–173.

Hodges, L.F., Rothbaum, B.O., Watson, B.A., Kessler, G.A. and Opdyke, D. (1996). Virtually conquering fear of flying. IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, 16, 42-49.

Krijn, M., Emmelkamp, P., Olafsson, R., Bouwman, M., van Gerwen, L., Spinhoven, P., Schuemie, M., van der Mast, C. (2007). Fear of flying treatment methods: virtual reality exposure vs. cognitive behavioral therapy. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 78(2), 121-8.

Meyerbroeker, K., Powers, M., van Stegeren, A., & Emmelkamp, P. (2011). Does Yohimbine Hydrochloride Facilitate Fear Extinction in Virtual Reality Treatment of Fear of Flying? A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 81(1), 29-37.

Rothbaum, B. O., Anderson, P., Zimand, E., Hodges, L., Lang, D., & Wilson, J. (2006). Virtual reality exposure therapy and standard (in vivo) exposure therapy in the treatment for the fear of flying. Behavior Therapy, 37(1), 80-90.

Rothbaum, B.O., Hodges, L., Anderson, P.L., Price, L. & Smith, S. (2002). 12-Month Follow-Up of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for the Fear of Flying. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 428-432.

Rothbaum, B.O., Hodges, L., Smith, S., Lee, J.H. & Price, L. (Dec 2000). A Controlled Study of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for the Fear of Flying. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 1020-1026.

Rothbaum, B.O., Hodges, L.F. & Smith, S. (1999). Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy Abbreviated Treatment Manual: Fear of Flying Application. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice,6, 234-244.

Rothbaum, B.O., Hodges, L.F., Watson, B.A., Kessler, G.D. and Opdyke, D. (1996). Virtual reality exposure therapy in the treatment of fear of flying: A case report. BehaviourResearch and Therapy, 34, 477-481.

Smith, S.G., Rothbaum, B.O., & Hodges, L.F. (1999). Treatment of fear of flying using virtual reality Exposure therapy: A single case study. The Behavior Therapist, 22, 154-160.

Tortella-Feliu, M., Botella, C., Llabrés, J., Bretón-López, J., del Amo, A., Baños, R. M., & Gelabert, J. M. (2011). Virtual Reality Versus Computer-Aided Exposure Treatments for Fear of Flying. Behavior Modification, 35(1), 3-30.

Van Gerwen, L. J., Spinhoven, P., & Van Dyck, R. (2006). Behavioral and cognitive group treatment for fear of flying: A randomized controlled trial. Journal Of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 37(4), 358-371.

Virtual Reality and Public Speaking

Anderson, P., Zimand, E., Hodges, L., Rothbaum, B. (2005). Cognitive behavioral therapy for public-speaking anxiety using virtual reality for exposure. Depression and Anxiety, 22(3), 156-158.

Berg, J. (2007). SimSpeech: Virtual Audiences Help Candidates Hone Speaking Skills. Campaigns & Elections (1996), 28(9), 52.

Burton, M., Schmertz, S. K., Price, M., Masuda, A., & Anderson, P. L. (2013). The Relation Between Mindfulness and Fear of Negative Evaluation Over the Course of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder. Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 69(3), 222-228.

Cornwell, B. R., Johnson, L., Berardi, L., & Grillon, C. (2006). Anticipation of Public Speaking in Virtual Reality Reveals a Relationship Between Trait Social Anxiety and Startle Reactivity.Biological Psychiatry, 59(7), 664-666.

Harris, S. R., Kemmerling, R. L., & North, M. M. (2002). Brief Virtual Reality Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 5(6), 543-550.

Owens, M., & Beidel, D. (2015). Can Virtual Reality Effectively Elicit Distress Associated with Social Anxiety Disorder? Journal Of Psychopathology & Behavioral Assessment, 37(2), 296-305.

Pertaub, D., Slater, M., & Barker, C. (2002). An Experiment on Public Speaking Anxiety in Response to Three Different Types of Virtual Audience. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 11(1), 68-78.

Safir, M. P., Wallach, H. S., & Bar-Zvi, M. (2012). Virtual Reality Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: One-Year Follow-Up. Behavior Modification, 36(2), 235-246.

Slater, M., Pertaub, D., Barker, C., & Clark, D. M. (2006). An Experimental Study on Fear of Public Speaking Using a Virtual Environment. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 9(5), 627-633.

Wallach, H. S., Safir, M. P., & Bar-Zvi, M. (2009). Virtual Reality Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Behavior Modification, 33(3), 314-338.

Wallach, H., Safir, M., & Bar-Zvi, M. (2011). Virtual reality exposure versus cognitive restructuring for treatment of public speaking anxiety: a pilot study. Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 48(2), 91-7.

Yun, L., Brinkman, W., Nefs, H. T., Chao, Q., & Heynderickx, I. (2012). Effects of Stereoscopic Viewing on Presence, Anxiety, and Cybersickness in a Virtual Reality Environment for Public Speaking. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 21(3), 254-267.

Virtual Reality and Anxiety

Gershon, J., Anderson, P., Graap, K., Zimand, E., Hodges, L., & Rothbaum, B. (2002). Focus on Empirically Supported Methods: Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders. The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice, 1, 76-81.

Opriş, D., Pintea, S., García-Palacios, A., Botella, C., Szamosközi, Ş., & David, D. (2012). Virtual reality exposure therapy in anxiety disorders: a quantitative meta-analysis. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 29(2), 85-93.

Parsons, T. & Rizzo, A.A. (2008). Affective Outcomes of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety and Specific Phobias: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 39, 250-261.

Powers, M. B., & Emmelkamp, P. G. (2008). Virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis. Journal Of Anxiety Disorders, 22(3), 561-569.

Rothbaum, B.O., & Hodges, L.F. (1999). The use of Virtual Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders. Behavior Modification, 23(4), 507-525.

Sarver, N., Beidel, D., & Spitalnick, J. (2014). The feasibility and acceptability of virtual environments in the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology,43 (1), 63-73.

Zimand, E., Anderson, P., Gershon, G., Graap, K., Hodges, L. & Rothbaum, B. (2003) Virtual Reality Therapy: Innovative Treatment for Anxiety Disorders. Primary Psychiatry, 9(7), 51-54.

Virtual Reality and Phobias

Anderson, P., Rothbaum, B., & Hodges, L. (2000). Social phobia: Virtual reality exposure therapy for fear of public speaking. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

Garcia-Palacios, A. A., Botella, C. C., Hoffman, H. H., & Fabregat, S. S. (2007). Comparing Acceptance and Refusal Rates of Virtual Reality Exposure vs. In Vivo Exposure by Patients with Specific Phobias. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 10(5), 722-724.

Krijn, M., Emmelkamp, P., Olafsson, R., Schuemie, M., van der Mast, C. (2007). Do self-statements enhance the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy? A comparative evaluation in acrophobia. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 10(3), 362-70.

Malbos, E., Rapee, R., & Kavakli, M. (2011). Isolating the effect of Virtual Reality Based Exposure Therapy for agoraphobia: a comparative trial. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 167, 45-50.

Morina, N., Ijntema, H., Meyerbröker, K., & Emmelkamp, P. M. (2015). Can virtual reality exposure therapy gains be generalized to real-life? A meta-analysis of studies applying behavioral assessments. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 7418-24.

Parsons, T. & Rizzo, A.A. (2008). Affective Outcomes of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety and Specific Phobias: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 39, 250-261.

Price M, Mehta N, Tone EB, Anderson P. (2011). Does engagement with exposure yield better outcomes? Components of presence as a predictor of treatment response for virtual reality exposure therapy for social phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25(6), 763-70.

Rothbaum, B.O., Hodges, L.F., Kooper, R., Opdyke, D., Williford, J. and North, M.M. (1995). Effectiveness of computer-generated (virtual reality) graded exposure in the treatment of acrophobia.American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 626-628.

Rothbaum, B.O., Hodges, L.F., Kooper, R., Opdyke, D., Williford, J. and North, M.M. (1995). Virtual reality graded exposure in the treatment of acrophobia: a case report. Behavior Therapy, 26,547-554.

St-Jacques, J., Bouchard, S., Bélanger, C. (2010). Is virtual reality effective to motivate and raise interest in phobic children toward therapy? A clinical trial study of in vivo with in virtuo versus in vivo only treatment exposure. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71(7), 924-31.

Virtual Reality and Addictions

Bordnick, P., Copp, H., Traylor, A., Graap, K., Carter, B., Walton, A., & Ferrer, M. (2009). Reactivity to Cannabis Cues in Virtual Reality Environments. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 41 (2), 105-112.

Bordnick, P., Graap, K., Copp, H., Brooks, J., & Ferrer, M. (2005). Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment in Cigarette Smokers, CyberPsychology & Behavior, Vol. 8, No. 5: 487-492.

Bordnick, P., Graap, K., Copp, H., Brooks, J., Ferrer, M., & Logue, B. (2004). Utilizing virtual reality to standardize nicotine craving research: A pilot study. Journal of Addictive Behaviors, 29,1889-1994.

Bordnick, P., Traylor, A., Copp, H., Graap, K., Carter, B., Ferrer, M., & Walton, A. (2008). Assessing reactivity to virtual reality alcohol based cues. Addictive Behaviors, 33, 743-756.

Choi, Y., & Lee, J. (2015). The effect of virtual covert sensitization on reducing alcohol craving in heavy social drinkers. Virtual Reality, 19(2), 111.

Girard, B., Turcotte, V., Bouchard, S., & Girard, B. (2009). Crushing Virtual Cigarettes Reduces Tobacco Addiction and Treatment Discontinuation. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12(5), 477-483.

Kuntze, M. F., Stoermer, R., Mager, R., Roessler, A., Mueller-Spahn, F., & Bullinger, A. H. (2001). Immersive Virtual Environments in Cue Exposure. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 4(4), 497-501.

Riva, G., Bacchetta, M., Cesa, G., Conti, S., Castelnuovo, G., Mantovani, F., & Molinari, E. (2006). Is Severe Obesity a Form of Addiction?: Rationale, Clinical Approach, and Controlled Clinical Trial. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 9(4), 457-479.

Son, J. H., Lee, S. H., Seok, J. W., Kee, B. S., Lee, H. W., Kim, H. J., Lee, T. K., & Han, D. H. (July 2015). Virtual reality therapy for the treatment of alcohol dependence: A preliminary investigation with positron emission tomography/computerized tomography. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 76(4), 620–627.

Steigman, I. I. (2012). P-92 - Avatar based recovery platform: new directions in the treatment of chemical dependency. European Psychiatry, 271.

Stix, G. (2010). Craving a Cure. Scientific American, 303(4), 32.

Virtual Reality and Pain Management

Botella, C., Garcia-Palacios, A., Vizcaíno, Y., Herrero, R., Baños, R., & Belmonte, M. (2013). Virtual Reality in the Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Pilot Study. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 16(3), 215-223.

de Tommaso, M., Ricci, K., Laneve, L., Savino, N., Antonaci, V., & Livrea, P. (2013). Virtual Visual Effect of Hospital Waiting Room on Pain Modulation in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Chronic Migraine. Pain Research & Treatment, 1-8.

Furman, E., Jasinevicius, R., Bissada, N. F., Victoroff, K. Z., Skillicorn, R., & Buchner, M. (2009). Virtual reality distraction for pain control during periodontal scaling and root planingprocedures. Journal Of The American Dental Association (JADA), 140(12), 1508-1516.

Gershon, J., Zimand, E., Pickering, M., Rothbaum, B.O., & Hodges, L., (2004). A Pilot and Feasibility Study of Virtual Reality as a Distraction for Children with Cancer. J. AM. ACAD. Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(10), 1243-9.

Guo, C., Deng, H., & Yang, J. (2015). Effect of virtual reality distraction on pain among patients with hand injury undergoing dressing change. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 24(1/2), 115-120.

Gutiérrez-Maldonado, J., Gutiérrez-Martínez, O., Loreto-Quijada, D., & Nieto-Luna, R. (2012). The use of virtual reality for coping with pain with healthy participants. Psicothema, 24(4), 516-522.

Herrero, R., García-Palacios, A., Castilla, D., Molinari, G., & Botella, C. (2014). Virtual Reality for the Induction of Positive Emotions in the Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Pilot Study over Acceptability, Satisfaction, and the Effect of Virtual Reality on Mood. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 17(6), 379-384.

Hoffman, H. G., Chambers, G. T., Meyer III, W. J., Arceneaux, L. L., Russell, W. J., Seibel, E. J., & ... Patterson, D. R. (2011). Virtual Reality as an Adjunctive Non-pharmacologic Analgesic for Acute Burn Pain During Medical Procedures. Annals Of Behavioral Medicine, 41(2), 183-191.

JahaniShoorab, N., Zagami, S. E., Nahvi, A., Mazluom, S. R., Golmakani, N., Talebi, M., & Pabarja, F. (2015). The Effect of Virtual Reality on Pain in Primiparity Women during Episiotomy Repair: A Randomize Clinical Trial. Iranian Journal Of Medical Sciences, 40(3), 219-224.

Kipping, B., Rodger, S., Miller, K., & Kimble, R. M. (2012). Virtual reality for acute pain reduction in adolescents undergoing burn wound care: A prospective randomized controlled trial. Burns (03054179), 38(5), 650-657.

Loreto-Quijada, D., Gutiérrez-Maldonado, J., Nieto, R., Gutiérrez-Martínez, O., Ferrer-García, M., Saldaña, C., & ... Liutsko, L. (2014). Differential Effects of Two Virtual Reality Interventions: Distraction Versus Pain Control. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 17(6), 353-358.

Maani, C. V., Hoffman, H. G., Fowler, M., Maiers, A. J., Gaylord, K. M., & DeSocio, P. A. (2011). Combining Ketamine and Virtual Reality Pain Control During Severe Burn Wound Care: One Military and One Civilian Patient. Pain Medicine, 12(4), 673-678.

Malloy, K. M., & Milling, L. S. (2010). The effectiveness of virtual reality distraction for pain reduction: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(8), 1011-1018.

Miller, K., Rodger, S., Bucolo, S., Greer, R., & Kimble, R. M. (2010). Multi-modal distraction. Using technology to combat pain in young children with burn injuries. Burns (03054179), 36(5), 647-658.

Minyoung, L., Dongwon, S., Jaebum, S., Jungjin, K., Seon-Deok, E., & BumChul, Y. (2016). Patient perspectives on virtual reality-based rehabilitation after knee surgery: Importance of level of difficulty. Journal Of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 53(2), 239-252.

Mosso-Vázquez, J., Gao, K., Wiederhold, B. K., & Wiederhold, M. D. (2014). Virtual Reality for Pain Management in Cardiac Surgery. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 17(6), 371-378.

Sato, K., Fukumori, S., Matsusaki, T., Maruo, T., Ishikawa, S., Nishie, H., & ... Morita, K. (2010). Nonimmersive Virtual Reality Mirror Visual Feedback Therapy and Its Application for the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Open-Label Pilot Study. Pain Medicine, 11(4), 622-629.

Schmitt, Y. S., Hoffman, H. G., Blough, D. K., Patterson, D. R., Jensen, M. P., Soltani, M., & ... Sharar, S. R. (2011). A randomized, controlled trial of immersive virtual reality analgesia, during physical therapy for pediatric burns. Burns (03054179), 37(1), 61-68.

Shiri, S., Feintuch, U., Weiss, N., Pustilnik, A., Geffen, T., Kay, B., & ... Berger, I. (2013). A Virtual Reality System Combined with Biofeedback for Treating Pediatric Chronic Headache-A Pilot Study. Pain Medicine, 14(5), 621-627.

Sulea, C., Soomro, A., Boyd, C., & Wiederhold, B. (2014). Pain Management in Virtual Reality: A Comprehensive Research Chart. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 17(6), 402-413.

Tanja-Dijkstra, K., Pahl, S., P. White, M., Andrade, J., Qian, C., Bruce, M., & ... Moles, D. R. (2014). Improving Dental Experiences by Using Virtual Reality Distraction: A Simulation Study. PlosONE, 9(3), 1-10.

Triberti, S., Repetto, C., & Riva, G. (2014). Psychological Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Virtual Reality-Based Analgesia: A Systematic Review. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 17(6), 335-345.

Trost, Z., & Parsons, T. D. (2014). Beyond Distraction: Virtual Reality Graded Exposure Therapy as Treatment for Pain-Related Fear and Disability in Chronic Pain. Journal Of AppliedBiobehavioral Research, 19(2), 106-126.

Wiederhold, B. K., Gao, K., Sulea, C., & Wiederhold, M. D. (2014). Virtual Reality as a Distraction Technique in Chronic Pain Patients. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 17(6), 346-352.

Wiederhold, B. K., Soomro, A., Riva, G., & Wiederhold, M. D. (2014). Future Directions: Advances and Implications of Virtual Environments Designed for Pain Management. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 17(6), 414-422.

Wiederhold, M. D., Gao, K., & Wiederhold, B. K. (2014). Clinical Use of Virtual Reality Distraction System to Reduce Anxiety and Pain in Dental Procedures. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 17(6), 359-365.

Wolitzky, K., Fivush, R., Zimand, E., Hodges, L., Rothbaum, B.O. (2005). Effectiveness of virtual reality distraction during a painful medical procedure in pediatric oncology patients. Psychology and Health, December, 20(6), 817-824.

Won, A., & Collins, T. A. (2012). Non-Immersive, Virtual Reality Mirror Visual Feedback for Treatment of Persistent Idiopathic Facial Pain. Pain Medicine, 13(9), 1257-1258.

Selected Virtual Reality Research Publications

Anderson, P, Rothbaum, B, & Hodges, L. (2001). Virtual Reality: Using the virtual world to improve quality of life in the real world. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 65, 78-91.

Brundage, S. B., & Hancock, A. B. (2015). Real Enough: Using Virtual Public Speaking Environments to Evoke Feelings and Behaviors Targeted in Stuttering Assessment and Treatment.American Journal Of Speech-Language Pathology, 24(2), 139-149.

Brundage, S.B. & Graap, K. (2004). Virtual Reality: An Exciting New Tool to Enhance Stuttering Treatment. Perspectives on Fluency Disorders, 14, 4-9.

Brundage, SB, Graap, K., Gibbons, KF, Ferrer, M, Brooks, J. (2006). Frequency of stuttering during challenging and supportive virtual reality job interviews. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 31, 325-339.

Carvalho, M., Freire, R. C., & Nardi, A. (2010). Virtual reality as a mechanism for exposure therapy. World Journal Of Biological Psychiatry, 11(2_2), 220-230.

Chirico, A., Lucidi, F., De Laurentiis, M., Milanese, C., Napoli, A., & Giordano, A. (2016). Virtual Reality in Health System: Beyond Entertainment. A Mini-Review on the Efficacy of VR During Cancer Treatment. Journal Of Cellular Physiology, 231(2), 275-287.

Cukor, J., Spitalnick, J.S., Difede, J., Rizzo, A.A., & Rothbaum, B.O. (2009). Emerging Treatments for PTSD. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 715-726.


Diers, M., Kamping, S., Kirsch, P., Rance, M., Bekrater-Bodmann, R., Foell, J., & ... Flor, H. (2015). Illusion-related brain activations: A new virtual reality mirror box system for use during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Brain Research, 1594173-182.

Freeman, D., Antley, A., Ehlers, A., Thompson, C., Vorontsova, N., Garety, P., & ... Slater, M. (2014). The Use of Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) to Predict the Occurrence 6 Months Later of Paranoid Thinking and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Assessed by Self-Report and Interviewer Methods: A Study of Individuals Who Have Been Physically Assaulted. Psychological Assessment, 26(3), 841-847.

Glantz, K., Rizzo, A & Graap, K (2003). Virtual Reality for Psychotherapy: Current Reality and Future Possibilities. Psychotherapy, 40, 55-67.

Hadley, W., Houck, C., Spitalnick, J., Garcia, A., Roye, S., & Brown,L. (2014). Eliciting affect via immersive virtual reality for adolescents: A tool for adolescent risk reduction. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 39(3), 358-68.

Harvie, D. S., Broecker, M., Smith, R. T., Meulders, A., Madden, V. J., & Moseley, G. L. (2015). Bogus Visual Feedback Alters Onset of Movement-Evoked Pain in People With Neck Pain. Psychological Science (0956-7976), 26(4), 385-392.

Hodges, L., Anderson P., Burdea, G., Hoffman, H., & Rothbaum, B. (2001). Treating Psychological and Physical Disorders with VR. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 25-33.

Hodges, L.F., Rothbaum, B.O., Kooper, R., Opdyke, D., Meyer, T., North, M., de Graff, J.J., Williford, J. (1995). Virtual environments for exposure therapy. IEEE Computer Journal, 7, 27-34.

Katayama, O., Iki, H., Sawa, S., Osumi, M., & Morioka, S. (2015). The effect of virtual visual feedback on supernumerary phantom limb pain in a patient with high cervical cord injury: a single-case design study. Neurocase (Psychology Press), 21(6), 786-792.

Klomp, R.W., Spitalnick, J.S., & Reissman, D. B. (2011). Virtual Classroom Immersion Training: Safeguarding the Health, Safety, and Resiliency of Emergency Responders.Trainingand Development, 65, 38-43.

Manera, V., Chapoulie, E., Bourgeois, J., Guerchouche, R., David, R., Ondrej, J., & ... Robert, P. (2016). A Feasibility Study with Image-Based Rendered Virtual Reality in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia. Plos ONE, 11(3), 1-14.

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